Early developmental exposure to high fructose intake in rats with NaCl stimulation causes cardiac damage


Metabolic syndrome (MS) increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. High consumption of fructose is a proposed cause of increased MS, manifested through hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. High NaCl also increases the risk of CD. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of fructose and sodium on autonomic dysfunction and its relation with CD in MS. Fructose overload was started at weaning and continued through adulthood.
Male Wistar rats (21 days) were divided into four groups: Control (C), fructose consumption (10%, F), NaCl consumption (salt 1% for the 10 last days, S), and fructose and NaCl (FS), and monitored for 8 weeks. Metabolic evaluations consisted of Lee index, glycemia, insulin and glucose tolerance tests, triglycerides, and total cholesterol measurements. Cardiovascular parameters measured were arterial pressure (AP) and cardiac function performed by echocardiography. They also measured the influence of renin angiotensin (RAS) and autonomic nervous systems by drug blockage with losartan, atropine, and atenolol.
RESULTS: Energy analysis showed no change between groups. Fructose overload induced a MS state, confirmed by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. Fasting glucose was increased in F and FS rat groups compared with C and S groups. AP was higher in F, S, and FS groups in comparison with the C group. The hypotensive response after sympathetic blockade was increased in F, S, and FS versus C. The cardiac vagal tonus was reduced in F and FS animal groups. The intrinsic heart rate was decreased in the FS group (372 ± 9 bpm) compared with the C group (410 ± 13 bpm). The morphometric measurements evaluated through left ventricular diameter during diastole and the left ventricular diameter during systole decreased in the FS group (16 and 26%, respectively). Diastolic function was reduced in F and FS. The depressor response induced by losartan was increased in the F group in comparison with other groups. However, there was a uniform increase in plasma ACE activity in all treated groups compared with the C group.
CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that early exposure to high fructose intake produced marked alterations in metabolic and cardiovascular function. When stimulated by NaCl, the fructose-fed subjects showed further impairment in cardiac function.

Authors: Araujo IC, Andrade RP, Santos F, Soares ES, Yokota R, Mostarda C, Fiorino P, De Angelis K, Irigoyen MC, Morris M, Farah V.

DOI: 10.1007/s00394-014-0826-5


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